Абылай хан 18-ый хан Казахского ханства, родился в 1711 и умер в 1781 гг. Один из великих ханов в истории казахской Орды. Его предок основоположник Ак-Орды, Орда Эджен. Так же Абылай прямой потомок Урус-хана, Барак хана, аз Жанибека. Сам Абылай хан дедушка уникальной личности в истории казахского ханства Кенесары хана.
Abylai Khan (real name Abilmansur)
Outstanding statesman, brave military leader and far-sighted politician. Abylai is also known as a talented kuishi, who knew and loved the folklore of the Kazakh people.
Abylai is the fifth descendant of Khan Zhangir. Zhangir Khan had 2 sons – Ualibaki and Tauke. When Zhangir Khan died on the throne, his son Tauke was seated. The offended Ualibaka went to his mother’s relative, Khan Kayyp, who at that time was in Urgench.
The son of Ualibaka Abylai was a very strong, courageous batyr, when he went out one by one the rivals could not stand, and Abylai emerged victorious. He was nicknamed the bloodthirsty Abylai. He has a son – a handsome Ouali. This handsome son Uali had a son, who was named Abilmansur (later became khan of Kazakhs Abylai). In the hardest times for the nation “aetaban shybyrindy”, an orphan little Abilmansur falls into the hands of Tole bi. Looking to the grown, lean Abilmansur Tole Bi calls him “Sabalak” and sends the jaws of the camels. Also, Abilmansur grazes herds of horses Abilmambet Torah. If to refer to the statement of Sh. Ualikhanov, at this time Abilmansuru was about 13 years old. Tole bi plays a huge role in his upbringing. He absorbed the wisdom and mind of the Kazakh steppe, the ability to rule and seeing in the young man the mind, courage, speed, the ability to quickly make the only right decision. Tole Bi slowly prepares him to lead, repulse the attackers, and in the future plans to use it as a batyr, as a highly professional warrior, in the struggle of the Kazakh people against the jungars. Moreover, since childhood, having remained an orphan, he has experienced many deprivations and this also helped him to quickly grow and participate in the life of the people. Judging by the oral creativity of that time, as well as the oral literature Bukhar zhyrau and Umbetey zhyrau, already at the age of twenty Abylay participated in the battles and was known as a batyr, whom no one could defeat. The proof of this is the song Bukhar Zhyrau: “You are already at the age of 20, sitting on the Golden Throne, like the White Falcon” …
Aggression of the Dzungar
In one of the battles an unknown warrior went one on one with Kalmyk’s famous batyr Sharysh, a close relative of the Kaldan Serena kontajah and kills him. After this fight, they started talking about Abilmansura as a real batyr. In the battle, Abilmansur rushed with the name of his grandfather Abylai, on his lips “Abylai! Abylai! “Sounded like a call to battle, to victory. After a successful battle that ended in victory, Abilmansura was raised by the Sultan of the Middle Zhuz. Moreover, he is recognized as one of the authoritative overlords of the Kazakh steppes and called him Abylai, forgetting the real Abilmansur …
Judging by historical data in the period 1730 to 1733 between the troops of the Middle Zhuz and the Dzungars there were great battles in which Abylai participated. And always won. Even in Chinese sources the following data are quoted: “In 1733 there was a big fight between Kazakhs and Kalmaks, the Kazakh troops won the battle, especially the batyr named Abylai”. In the battles that took place in the years 1730-1740, the qualities of Abylai, as leader, were especially evident, as a brave, courageous, enduring, able to lead a military commander. One such long fight is sung in the songs of Bukhar Zhyrau: “You fought Calden for seven days in a row until you defeated him …”. Together with Abylai, the great batyrs-Karakerei Kabanbai, Kanzhygaly Bogembai, Shakshak Zhanibek, Karakalpak Kylishbek, Shapyrashty Nauryzbai, etc. participated in the battles. And this shows Abylai as a wise leader who managed to unite all three Zhuz Kazakhs into one. Over the years, in this tribe, the grandson of Tauke Khan Abilmambet Khan transfers power to Abylai, content with the role of an adviser and elder brother. And even this act of Abilmambet Khan shows how wise, far-sighted he was. In the late 30-ies of the XVIII century, the name Abylay was named along with the name Abilmambet Khan. Russian historian Levshin AI in his studies wrote as follows: “1739g. In the Middle Zhuz instead of Sameke Khan, before the elections, Abilmambet Khan and Abylai ruled jointly. ” And this version was confirmed by Sh. Ualikhanov.
How Abilmansur began to be called Abylai
In 1723, rulers with countless Jungar troops broke into the Kazakh lands and began to destroy everything on their way, turning them into ruins. This period is known to the Kazakh people as “aqtaban shubyrindy, alka kol sulam”. At this point, Abilmansur was only 12 years old. And he, together with his people, experienced all the hardships of that hungry, beggarly, deprived of the most necessary life. In the same period Abilkayr hoping for the support of the Russian Empire goes into contact with them, and this greatly undermines the militant spirit of the sarbaz. In the country, enmity develops between families, between births and a general disorder begins. Knowing all the difficulties of the Kazakh sarbaz and the whole nation, the Dzungars do everything to break down morale and humiliate our sarbazes. And once again when the Dzungars went one on one with our batyrs, it is natural that the Dzungars chose which of the Kazakhs should go out to fight. And they chose the opponent weaker than their batyrs in order to raise morale to their jungars, and vice versa, as much as possible offend and humiliate our soldiers. After all, the loser could not look into the eyes of his congeners, with shame he was ready to fall through the earth. In 1731, in one of these fights, the Dzungars nominated a close relative of Alden Khan, the famous Batyr Sharysh. The Kazakh army, who did not expect such a turn of affairs, remained in confusion. There was a pause. Knowing batyr Sharysh in battles, nobody dared to go against it. And Sharysh batyr, using the pause that came, shouted: “Bring out the strongest batyr, otherwise you, as losers, incline your flag!” And at this time, unable to withstand the insult, humiliation of his people, Sabala asked permission to fight with Abilmambet Khan and goes to battle. And with a cry of “Abylai! Abylai! “Immediately rushes to the batyr jungar and cuts off his head on the battlefield. And again with a cry of “The enemy is running! The enemy is running! “Rushes to the Dzungarian troops. Inspired Kazakh sarbazi as one on the run attacking the jungar. Dzungars in a state of shock – lost their batyr, but then the attack is so powerful and whether from surprise, or really frightened the Dzungars ran wherever … Finally, everything was quiet, the Kazakh people rejoiced. Sabalatan Khan Abulmbambet Khan asks Sabalak: “Why did you attack the enemy named Abylai?” Sabala answers: “My name is Abilmansur, but I am the grandson of the bloodthirsty Abylai! In war, my grandfather tried to win more than once, so I thought maybe I should repeat my grandfather’s way too! ” Then Abilmambet Khan there, with all the people, gives him the name of Abylai and collects of three zhuzes 90 people go to Zhanibek and receive his blessing …
Foreign policy during the Khanate
1738-1741 years, the Kazakh army under the leadership of Abylaya several times hit the Dzungarian conquerors. In 1742, as a result of a sudden attack, Dzhungar Abylai is taken prisoner. The capture of the most active, courageous organizer-warrior in the fight against the Oirat will cause concern in the Kazakh society that the liberation of Abylai will inevitably become a big political act. In historical singing in verse it is said that Tole bi and Abilkair Khan on behalf of Kazakh rulers appealed to the Orenburg administration with the request of assistance in the liberation of Abylai. This fact is confirmed by the correspondence of the Orenburg governor of the time, I.S. Neplyuev and Abilkayyr Khan, who are negotiating with the Jungars. And in 1743 on September 5, Tolle bi with 90 people ambassadors of the three zhuzs negotiating releases Abylai from captivity. At the same time, I.S.Neplyuyev feared that the Kazakhs and the Dzungars would come to an agreement and unite. He writes about this to the Foreign Affairs Board. The power of Abylai increased in 1744, in connection with the departure of Abilmambet to Turkestan.
Abylai, being a far-sighted politician, effectively used diplomatic methods, so that people exhausted, weakened by prolonged military actions could take a breath, gather strength. In this regard, Abylai, along with the Khan of the Middle Zhouz Abilmambet, and another 120-elders come to Orenburg, to conclude an agreement “that they are under the care of the Russian government.” Simultaneously with this friendship with the Russians, in order to preserve the unity of the Kazakh Khanate, he did not lose his warm relations with the Chinese Empire Shin and sent his ambassadors to St. Petersburg and Beijing. A disagreement between Russia and China has successfully applied for the interest of the Kazakh Khanate. In 1745, after the death of Kaldan Serena, a long struggle for the throne began among the Dzungar rulers and their army weakened in the same way losing its militancy, and Abylai used this situation very successfully to recover the Kazakh borderlands temporarily conquered by the Dzungars.
Abylai stood for unity and did nothing to undermine the independence, integrity of the Kazakh people and adhere to an independent foreign policy.
In 1745, in the Middle Zhuz, the names of Abulmambet khan, Abylaya and Barak Sultan were called together, then where in 3-4 years the situation changed fundamentally, and in August 1749, at a meeting with Neplyuev, Zhanibek Tarkhan said: “In Middle Zhuz Khan Abulmbambet residing in Tashkent , from the government of the country pulled away, but is on the run for the atrocities the two have committed. Therefore, the only ruler is Abylai Sultan. ”
The written sources of that time clearly indicate that Abylai waged a constant war against the conquerors. Evidence of this can serve as evidence that shows which battles were fought between 1752 and 1770. Abylai having almost five times less sarbaz. Than the Dzungars entered the battle and his people fought to the full victory, without a break for rest. And this shows how hardy, brave were the sarbazes of Abylai. On short days of rest, the sarbazes also conducted military training. Another vivid example of masculinity, brave sarbaz Abylai, he numbered 1,700 people in April 1754, takes the battle of 10,000 troops Kalmakov on the bank of the river Karatal. An unequal and lasting battle ended in a draw. And in July of the same year, Abylai, with an army of 4,000 people, attacks the Dzungars, and, in addition to another prey, captures 3000 Dzungars. Thus, Abylai shows enemies that we can attack and raid, but we are a peaceful people, and we do not want bloodshed. As well acting wisely Abylai at home gives shelter to some of his enemies, who at that time are hiding from others. Thus, fueling an inter-war within the tribe, which is in the hands of Abylai, that it would be easy to return the lands that were recently captured by the Jungars, but from ancient times belonging to our ancestors. And in these wars, Abylai fought along with the batyrs Kabanbai, Bogenbai, Zhanatay, Kerey Zhanibek, Othenen, and others. And in 1757, when Abylai, with an army of 6,000 men, took the fight with 40,000 Chinese troops, after prolonged, exhausting battles, Chinese rulers ask Abylai about the model. What Abylay denies: “They started the war, suddenly attacked us. Now we put the conditions … “. This fact once again shows how wise, smart military commander was Abylai. Fighting with a numerous enemy, exceeding almost 7 times, his army forces the enemies to kneel.
Just in 1755-1765 Abylay goes on a military campaign in order to return the originally Kazakh lands. Thus, he returns the left bank of the river Il, completely surrounded by the Shu River, and today the preserved borders, from Narynkol to Kordai.
The last 15 years of life Abylai spent in the struggle against the Khanate of Central Asia. The result of this painstaking struggle in 1765-67gg. with the ruler of Kokand Erdenbek of the city of Turkestan, Sairam, Shymkent again went to the disposal of the Kazakh Khanate, and Tashkent paid the Kazakh khanate with requisitions. The two-hundred-year-long liberation struggle of the Kazakh people against the Dzungarian invasion in the minds of the people has been preserved by the last battle, which in 1771 was called a “dusty campaign”. It was a sharp migration of the Dzungars from the Volga coast (170-180 thousand people, 40 thousand troops) through the Kazakh lands to their previous place of residence. But the troops of the junior juz under the leadership of Khan Nuraly struck the first blow on the bank of the river Gem. Already approaching Balkhash, the Dzungars were surrounded by a large army led by Abylai. And the Dzungarian rulers led by Ubash and Seren send Abylai ambassadors with a request for reconciliation, the readiness to accept citizenship by all the people who are subject to them. But Abylai as a far-sighted ruler refuses these proposals and creates a condition for the normal, free return of people who have experienced the hardships of the defeated, on their lands, to their families. Anticipating in the future good neighborly relations with the southern neighbor, since he already planned to liberate the southern lands freed from the Dzungars by Kazakh auls, which would be our own.
Abulmambet Khan died in 1771, having reached the advanced age. According to the established tradition, the Khan of the Middle Zhuz must be one of the brothers Abulmambet khan, or the eldest son of Abulmbambet Khan Abilpeiz. However, the representatives of sultans, elders and by the consent of Abilpeiza himself, the khan of all three zhuzes – the Great Khan of the Kazakh Horde choose Abylay.
Abylai Khan led a policy corresponding to the geopolitical position of the country located between the empires of Russia and China. Even during the period when the Chinese forces forced the jungar to go over to the defenses, and then destroyed and seeking to enter Central Asia and Kazakhstan, Abylai Khan held talks with Ahmad Shahy Durranimen, the shah of Afghanistan and called for the unity of all the Muslim countries of Central Asia. I intended to send people to the Turkish embassies. And when relations with China improved, the problem of becoming a citizen of Russia increased and again Abylai Khan kept his distance with the Russians with his wisdom and vision. Even in 1779, without accepting the invitation of the administration of the Peter and Paul Fortress, which was made on behalf of the tsar, to receive the khan’s standards. During the chaotic war, Abylai Khan, with 3 thousand troops attacked the Russian fortresses, which were called the “belt of sorrow.”
Abylai Khan was known as a great commander, a wise and far-sighted politician, an intelligent and patient ruler. But along with these qualities Khan Abylai perfectly mastered dombyray and as a free spirit the real Kazakh composed and was a talented kuishi. This belongs to him kui “Aқ Tolyin”, “Ala Bayra”, “Bylan Zhigit”, “Dnei Kaldy”, “Zhetim tori”, “Kairan Elim”, “Kara zhora”, “Korzhynyakpay”, “Maida zhel”, “Sarah Bura “,” Shady Zhori “, etc. All life Abylaya spends in campaigns, in the saddle. Abylai Khan died on the bank of the river Arys, SKO. Buried Abylai Khan in Turkestan in the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassaui in the corridor between Kabirkhan and Aksaray. After Abylai Khan died from his 12 wives, there were 30 sons and 40 daughters. In the memory of the Kazakh people Abylai Khan survived as a tireless figure, a brave military leader, a talented diplomat. His name became a motto, a symbol of independence.
The great merits of Abylai Khan in preserving the independence of the Kazakhs
“In the captivity of the Chinese, the loops are tight, and the Russians have broad fetters.”
Abylai Khan is a historical figure who fought for the freedom and independence of the Kazakh people, the integrity of his territory, opposed the accession of Kazakhstan to Russia. However, he perfectly understood that for the open armed struggle the Kazakhs do not have sufficient forces. He foresaw the danger that numerous Russian military fortresses for the independence of the Kazakhs, the number of which were increasing, represent for the independence of the Kazakhs. Therefore, seeing all this, Abylai every time wrote letters to the Russian authorities, commandant of fortresses, letters of protest. Abylai was a very skilful diplomat, so he never went to the clash with Russia. He tried to protect the local population from the arbitrariness of the Cossack troops, called on Kazakhs to learn from Russian agriculture.
Having achieved power in twenty years, throughout his life Abylai khan did his best to unite the Kazakhs. He believed that the only way to preserve the independence of the Kazakh people is to create a well-armed and efficient army.
Abylai was a statesman on a national scale. Being in the title of Sultan, in fact became Khan of the Kazakh Khanate. According to Chokan Valikhanov, “already in 1739 Abylai became the most influential among the rulers of the Middle Zhuz.”
By tradition, before this time, the great khans’ rate was in the territory of the Senior Zhuz. When Abylai became the ruler of the Middle Zhuz, the biys and batyrs headed by Kazybek came to a common opinion about the need to transfer the khan’s rate to the territory of the Middle Zhuz, who was most endangered by the jungar invasion, so that the great khan as commander in chief could direct the fighting . Having received the consent and blessing of Tole, the chief biy of the Senior Zhuz, Abylai Khan transfers his bid to the territory of the Middle Zhuz – to the Kokchetav area.
Abylai set as his main goal the creation of a single and strong Kazakh Khanate. All Kazakh kurultais were repeatedly convened, where issues of war and peace, distribution of nomadic and pasture, trade and diplomatic relations with neighboring states were considered and resolved. The decision of the Kurultai was in the interests of all citizens of the three Zhuzes, the entire Kazakh people, they displayed wisdom and visionary Abylay, who managed to direct the interests of the masses and the khan’s power in one direction.
Abylai saved the Kazakh people from destruction, preserved its territorial integrity. Under his rule, tsarist Russia, China, the Dzungarian, Bukhara and Khiva khanates were forced to reckon with the country of the Kazakhs, established good-neighborly relations with it. Russia and China – the two great neighbors of the Kazakhs – recognized the increased authority of Abylai. One side sent him a special document recognizing him as khan of the Kazakhs, and the other party awarded him the title of prince.
In the middle of the eighteenth century, Abylai pays serious attention to establishing trade relations with both the West and the East. As a result, the exchange of exchange trade between the neighboring countries increased. In Orenburg, Semipalatinsk, and the Urals, exchange courts were opened to trade with the steppe. Along the left coast of the Irtysh stretches a caravan road to China, called “dear Abylai” among the people. The first in the history of the trade agreement between the Kazakh Khanate and China was concluded. All these measures of Abylai Khan contributed to the improvement of good-neighborly relations with other countries.
Abylai Khan was a very intelligent, far-sighted person. When I learn more about such great people, I am proud to live in such a state.
Khan Abylai and his place in the history of the Kazakh people Ablay = Abylai = Abilmamsur, the son of the Sultan of the Middle Zhule Vali, from the younger line of the Chingizids. His grandfather, also Abylay, was the ruler of the city of Turkestan, famous for his military prowess and received a formidable nickname Kan-isher (bloodsucker). At the age of 13, Abylai lost his father, killed during internecine strife, early enlisted in the service. I managed to show bravery a brilliant mind, sharpness. From the age of 15 he actively participates in the struggle of the Kazakhs against foreign invaders. Abylai understood that the main enemy of Kazakhstan is the Dzungars, and therefore seeks to maintain a pro-Russian orientation. In 1748, Khan of the Middle Zhouz Abulmambet and Sultan Abylai swore allegiance to Russia, but most of the Zhuz steppes preserved their isolation from Russia. Meanwhile, some issues were resolved: the expansion of Kazakh-Russian trade, ensuring the safety of Russian caravans, and others. Abylai was able to significantly weaken the military might of the Dzungar Khanate. As a wise politician, he managed to neutralize the hostile actions of the Central Asian khans. After the defeat of the Dzungar by the Chinese, the threat to Kazakhstan from this side has disappeared. The new threat was raised by the independence of Kazakhstan – from the side of the Manchu-Qing Empire, which prompted Abylai in 1756 to swear allegiance to China while retaining Russian citizenship. The great merit of Abylai is in the consolidation of various forces of the Kazakh society for the struggle against the Dzungarian and Qing conquerors. Abylai restored the territorial unity of the Kazakh lands. The main goal of Abylai is to ensure the independence of Kazakhstan in conditions of dual citizenship. Cleverly using diplomatic means, Abylai made efforts to return the Kazakh lands in the Tarbagatai and Altai mountains, east of Lake Zaisan. I tried to resolve disputable issues peacefully. Kazakhs established a trade link with Kashgar, Yarkend, acted as intermediaries in trade with Russian merchants. In the seventies of the 18th century, Abylai caused a number of defeats to the ruler of Khujand. Tashkent paid tribute to the Kazakhs. Turkestan, Shymkent, Sozak passed under the authority of Abylay. In 1771, after the death of the Khan of the Middle Zhouz of Abulmambet, Abylai was elected as khan of all three zhuzes by the Kazakhs, but the Russian government approved him only as the khan of the Middle Zhuz (May 24, 1778). Dividing his possession among the heirs (he had 30 sons and 40 daughters), Abylai carried out a number of transformations to manage the Kazakh Khanate. The form of government was autocracy, at the head of the ulus were the closest devotees of the sultans. Abylai limited biys in solving legal cases, created a battle-worthy army, encouraged the development of agriculture. He did a lot to develop the material and spiritual culture of the Kazakh people. He was an admirer of Kazakh folk music. He himself created several kyus, which unfortunately did not survive. Autumn of 1781 died and was buried in the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmet Yassavi in Turkestan.
|Абылай хан замандастары және ұрпақтары
Автор: Қадыржан Әбуев
Құрастырушы: Зарқын тайшыбай
|Абылай хан соврменники и наследники
Автор: Кадыржан Абуев