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Kokshetau

The city of Kokshetau is the administrative center of the Akmola region. Located in the northern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in a picturesque area on the southern shore of Lake Kopa, at the foot of the Bukpa hill.

  • Geography
  • History
  • Legends
  • Mount Mactai
  • The Mystery of Lake Kopa
  • Video

Once here, between the blue mountains and marsh swamps, thick pine and birch forests grew. Not far from the swamp the Chaglinka river flowed, the waters of which, at the end of the 19th century, were sent to the waterlogged places by a special canal channel by order of the military authorities. So Lake Kopa was formed, on the shore of which the city of Kokshetau is located.
Since 1999 the city is the regional center of the Akmola region.
Kokshetau is located on the shore of Kopa Lake in the north of the Kokshetau Upland, the foothills of which surround the city from the south and west.
In addition to the city of Kokshetau itself, the city administration (area of ​​400 km²) includes one settlement administration (Settlement settlement) and the Krasnoyarsk rural district, which includes two rural settlements (the villages of Krasny Yar and Kyzylzhulduz).
The Kokshetau Upland is located isolated to the north-west of the main massif of the melkosopochnik. The slopes are covered with pine forest. In depressions, birch-aspen small-leaved forests. In the northern foothills of the forest-steppe and on the outcrops of rock rocks pine forests, in the southern – forest-steppe and steppe areas. It consists of loosely connected massifs (the watershed is well expressed only in the central part). In the north-east the Burabai massif (Sinyuha 947 m, Zheke-Batyr 826 m) is the highest part of the hill. To the south is the Makinskaya Upland (516 m). To the south of the watershed of Sandyktau (626 m) and Zhaksytukty (596 m), on the watershed there are Zerendinskie (587 m) and Zhylandy (654 m) mountains. In the western part of the upland there are the Zhaksy-Zhalgiztau (729 m), Imantau (621 m), Ayyrtau (523 m) articulated by the valleys of the Akkanburlyk and Imanbulyk rivers. North-west of the hill are Syrymbet (409 m), the well-known nearby estate Aigan, the grandmother of Chokan Valikhanov. To the north of the watershed there is an array of Elikty (502 m), hanging over the valley of the Shagalaly River, and located in isolation Zhaman Sopka (372 m). In the north-western part of the Upland – Kokshetau National Park.
KOKSHETAU ist.-geogr. region located in S. Kazakhstan. Covers sowing. hours modern Akmola region, as well as the neighboring Ayrtausky, Tayinshinsky, them. G. Musrepov, Akzharsky, him. Sh. Ualikhanova of the North-Kazakhstan region. reg. In the center. part is located Kokshetau hr. Here the mountains of Kokshe, Zhaksy Zhalgiztau, Zhaman Zhalgiztau, Imantau, Zhylandy, Sandyktau, Ulken Tukti, Bukpa, Koshkarbai, Zerendy, Ayyrtau, Syrymbet, as well as the passes of Shortand and Burkitti are stretched here from the west to the west. Ulken Shabakty, Kishi Shabakty, Burabai, Ainakol, Aydabol, Zerenda, Kopa, Atansor, Mailysor, Mamay, Saumalkol, Shalkar, Ulken Koskol, Kishi Koskol, Zholdybai, Kalmakkol, Shagalaliteniz, Siletyteniz, Teke and others. places – Okzhetpes, “Zheke-Batyr”, Kenesary’s cave, etc. In Zap. h. ridge flows r. Yesil. Winter is cold, Wed.-year. The temperature of January -16-19 ° C, July 19-20 ° C. Wed.-year. the amount of precipitation is 230-400 mm. The region of Ki from the earliest times inhabited various. peoples. During the Bronze Age, he entered the Andronovo cultural community, during the early jelly. at. terra. sovr. the Sakha tribes inhabited the region. In the I-II centuries. n. e. Tribes of the Huns moved to the Kokshetau steppes. On Wednesday. These lands were part of the Turkic and Kimak Khanates, the Kypchak Khanate. In the 1 st floor. XIII century. K. was conquered by the troops of Genghis Khan and entered the ulus of Juchi. For a long period (XIII-XV centuries), the region of Kazakhstan was a part of Ak-Orda, within the framework of which the formation of the Kazakh was completed. people.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, on the land of Kokshetau, there were bets of famous khans, such as Abylai Khan, Kasym, Kenesary, who played a great role in the history of the Kazakh people.
Kokshetau was founded as a military settlement, the administrative center of the Kokchetav external district. Its official opening took place on April 29, 1824 in Borovoye, at the foot of the southern side of Kokshetau mountain. September 17, 1824 Kokchetavsky district order was included in the official list.
However, for a number of reasons, the construction of the settlement in this place was impossible, and only in the summer of 1827 the most convenient place was determined – at the foot of the Bukpa hill, on the shore of Kopa Lake, where the construction of the Kokchetavskaya stanitsa began. Since 1858, next to it, the middle-class, urban part of the settlement begins to grow.
In 1868, the outer districts were abolished, the Akmola region was formed. In it the Kokchetavsky external district entered as a district, and the village of Kokchetavskaya became its center.
The official status of the city of Kokchetav was received in 1895. According to the All-Russian census data, 5 thousand people lived in Kokchetav, and by 1917 – 10 thousand.
Soviet power in the Kokchetav uyezd was established in December 1917. In 1928, in connection with administrative reforms, the counties were abolished and districts were created on their basis. Several districts were created from the Kokchetav uyezd, including Kokchetavsky. Kokchetav became a district center. From 1932 to 1936 he was part of the Karaganda region, and from 1936 to 1944 – North Kazakhstan.
In 1944, March 16, the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council Kaz. SSR was formed Kokchetav region with a center in the city of Kokchetav.
Relatively rapid growth and development of urban infrastructure of Kokchetav fell on the years of mass development of virgin lands, especially in the 1960s and 70s. In these years the city began to acquire a modern look. During this period, all the main objects of the city were built, most of which still operate today: factories, factories, health care institutions, culture, and education. Housing construction was active.
In 1993, in order to revive the national toponymy, the city of Kokchetav was renamed Kokshetau.
In 1997, the Kokshetau region was liquidated, the city lost the status of an oblast center and two years was part of the North-Kazakhstan region.
In 1999, by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated April 8, the center of the Akmola region was moved from the city of Astana to the city of Kokshetau.
Large industrial enterprises of Kokshetau: gold mining enterprise of JSC “Altyntau Kokshetau”; JSC “Tynys” – for the production of medical products, weighing equipment, water meters, units and units of aircraft, polyethylene pipes, etc .; machine-building plant of OJSC “KamAZ-Engineering”; JSC “Kokshetauminvody”.
The health system of Kokshetau is represented by the Akmola regional hospital, the city hospital, anti-tuberculosis, psychoneurological, narcological, skin and venereal dispensaries, as well as the Blood Center and the AIDS Center. There is a network of private medical institutions.
The major higher educational institutions in Kokshetau’s education system are Kokshetau State University. Sh. Ualikhanova and Kokshetau Technical Institute of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2000 he began to receive students of the University. A.Myrzakhmetov. A number of other non-state universities operate.
The sphere of culture of the city is represented by such large institutions as the Akmola Kazakh Musical-Drama Theater. Sh. Khusainova; Russian Drama Theater; Regional philharmonic society; Regional History Museum; museum of the Hero of the Soviet Union, writer, academician M.Gabdullin; Museum of the History of Kokshetau; M. Zhumabaev Regional Library and a network of urban libraries. In Kokshetau there is a regional center of folk art, there are cultural palaces “Kokshetau”, “Dostar”, houses of culture “Origins”, “Kokshe”; cinema “Cinema – Alem”.
Religious institutions of Kokshetau are the Orthodox Church of the Archangel Michael and the Moslem Mosque. Nauana Hazreta, also operate the Roman Catholic Church of St. Anthony, the Mosque. Galima, the Mosque. Zhahiya Kaji.
Kokshetau every year acquires its unique appearance of a modern city, striving to become one of the centers of international tourism.

Mighty mountain Mactai!

At the intersection of Abylai-khan Avenue and ul. Gorky from north to south located one of the favorite places of the inhabitants of the city of Kokshetau – Mount Mactai. The Gorky street and the lane of Abylai Khan are closed by the river Kylshakty. The man-made mountain harmoniously harmonizes with the surrounding nature and it looks as if nature itself created this structure – the similarity of Okzhetpes in Borovoye. And you do not need to travel seventy kilometers to admire that legendary mountain, here it is near, within the city. This younger brother Okzhetpes! One can not help wondering how splendidly a man could choose and then weave into the exemplary plexus the corresponding shales according to the size, just as nature itself would have. In the people, these huge stones, from which this mountain is built, which two people can not “embrace”, are called sadytas. And the edges of the stones are rounded, in this regard, the rise to the height and descent from it are safe. It is said that this man-made mountain was laid back in the 80s of the 20th century, on the orders of the then first secretary of the Kokchetav regional committee, Maktai Sadiev. And stones with a rounded edge, which nowhere else you meet, specially brought from the village Koshkarbai. Though nowhere officially this area called “Mount Mactai” does not appear, but the people call it so. Here such a short history has “Mount Mactai – a favorite place of the townspeople.

Tourism is a profitable business. They say that all means are good for attracting tourists and investments. In the UK, for example, travelers are “called” haunted castles and a legend about the Jlox-Ness monster, which the Scots have successfully exploited for almost eight decades. In neighboring Russia, tours “in the wake of a snowman” are very popular. Than we are worse? Today, the main stream of tourists in the area are those wishing to visit the Shchuchinsk-Burabay resort area. Moreover, most of them from Kokshetau turn its nose. Like what we did not see in your town. And although the regional center has recently become much more fun, it does not have a bright tourist chip …
Involuntarily, the idea of ​​attracting a large number of travelers and explorers to Kokshetau, or rather to the Kopy Coast, was submitted by the writer, the founder of the newspaper Prophecies and Sensations, Anatoly Yurkin. It turns out that our former countryman, now he lives and works in St. Petersburg, has been posting his arguably controversial, but no less interesting materials and research about our lake for several years on the Internet. Here are a few excerpts from his works:
“Lake Kopa has man-made nature. By the middle of the 19th century, immigrants from Voronezh brought fish to the southern Siberia (according to the Internet encyclopedia “WikiFur”, this is an underwater race of creatures with anthropomorphic traits). On the way they were kept in vats of water. At the parking lot released into the river. Upon arrival in the Cossack village of Kokchetav, it turned out that the rivers are shallow, and the large lakes (Chelkar and Imantau) have salt water. Then there was an engineering idea for creating a man-made lake. The river (Kylshakty – Ed.) Was blocked in such a way that its waters were mixed with cold underground keys. Several families of fishermen settled in the formed lake. They and their offspring ate fish and shellfish. By the end of the 70’s the lake was so polluted that the edible mollusks became extinct. The exact date of the disappearance of the fishermen from the Copa is also unknown. According to some reports, even academician Vernadsky was brought from the sanatorium in Borovoye to Kopa and from afar he was told by fish-eaters. But with the barbarous development of virgin soil. Well, what is it? Even if we consider that stories about fish people are nothing more than a figment of imagination, with a certain promotion the idea could attract in Kokshetau several thousand tourists-lovers of everything supernatural and mysterious. Soon the embankment will undergo large-scale changes. The construction of a new microdistrict, a bypass road, a lane avenue, a friend’s house, a yacht club will begin here … So why not give the beautiful legend its place in future architectural projects on the Kope? Set the sculptures of mysterious fishermen on the coast, for example. But that’s not all, we read further:
“The lake was a treasure place. A huge safe. Twenty-meter water surface reliably protected the values ​​of citizens from tsarist officials and dashing people. First, the Andronovo gold was stored on the bottom of the Kopa (Andronovo – the general name of a group of close archaeological cultures of the 17th-9th centuries BC – Editorial Note). Secondly, in the chests were kept the most ordinary coins. The fact is known when in the 70s a chest was found with perfectly preserved heels of 1835. Old (pre-revolutionary) coins were thrown ashore before the mid-80s. ”
According to Anatoly Yurkin, initially the lake had a depth of up to 20 meters. In those days, there was no way to swim the swimmers for such a distance. With the rise of “good” to the surface, if absolutely necessary, the settlers were helped by the fishermen.
In conclusion, the author recalls the enormous costs that the city administration took in the late 1970s and early 1980s for the purification of the lake:

 “Zemesnaryady brought to Kopu mechanically cleaned the bottom. So was the search for treasure. Probably, the imaginary concern about “cleanliness” evaporated immediately, once the goal was achieved. According to unconfirmed reports, dredgers have extracted about 3.5 thousand coins from precious metals from Copa and one and a half tons of gold … »

Kimov E.-The Secret of Kopa Lake .- // Steppe Mayak.-2012.-27 September

Introduction