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Shokan Ualikhanov

Chokan Valikhanov (1835-1865)  is the great son of the Kazakh people. The descendant of the legendary Abylai Khan. Deep thinker, philosopher, traveler, orientalist, artist, writer.

  • Biography
  • Geographer, traveler
  • Historian, archaeologist, ethnographer
  • Writer, publicist
  • Memory of Shokan Ualikhanov
  • Scientific works
  • Видео

Ualikhanov Shokan Shyngysovich
1835-1865 gg.
Greetings, Ciocan.
O you, the soul of my coin,
What would you say about today,
Forgiving my gaze,
Forgiving me my unfree spirit
And all that I have lived so far.
Serving the empire, you knew how
From the bonds it is worth defending
And freely and small
Calculation of the soul does not stain.
And the lack of freedom of the spirit will perish.
But he looked: again you are far away,
My companion, holding a resilient step,
Like Prometheus, with fire in his hand
Sagin – Shirey
Children and youth Shokan Ualikhanov
Chokan (Muhamed – Hanafiya) Chingisovich Valikhanov was born in November 1835 in the fortress of Kushmurun, in the family of influential and wealthy Kazakh sultan Chinggis Valikhanov. His ancestors belonged to the ancient Sultan family. Praded Chokan, Khan of the middle Zhouz Abylai, was one of the first to accept Russian citizenship and throughout his life he maintained trade and political ties with Russia. Ablyai’s eldest son, Vali, the last khan of the middle Zhuz, developed these ties. Vali, from which Ciocan received his name, was his grandfather.
Chokan’s father, Genghis Valiev, the grandson of Khan Abylai, was born in 1811 in Syrymbet. From a young age, Chinggis closely communicated with the Russians, graduated from the Omsk military school, was one of those feudal lords who went to rapprochement with the tsarist administration. Children’s years of Chokan passed in the village, in the estate of their ancestors Syrymbet. These are the most beautiful places in Northern Kazakhstan, covered with historical legends. Here, in a private Kazakh school, he received primary education, mastered the basics of Arabic writing, and learned to draw.
Sultan’s children, by tradition, had to study several Oriental languages, it was necessary to know the “Languages ​​of the Seven Peoples”. This custom was still respected then and Chokan learned Arabic, and later Uighur literacy.
In the spiritual development of Ciocana, his beloved grandmother Aiganym played a big role, which instilled in her grandson love for folk songs, legends, tales, poetry of Kazakhs. It was an intelligent, far-sighted and for that time an educated woman. She knew several oriental languages, was interested in Russian culture, corresponded with the Asian Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Siberian Committee in St. Petersburg. Judging by archival sources, the range of socio-political interests of Aigan was quite wide. After the adoption of the “Charter on the Siberian Kirghiz” without its participation, not a single important event took place in Central and Northern Kazakhstan. Aiganym aspired to strengthen friendly relations between Kazakhs and Russians. She helped Russian scientists and engineers involved in geodetic research in the Kazakh steppe. “Aigan, his grandmother’s father,” Semenov-Tyan-Shansky wrote, “the widow of Khan Valya with her children remained faithful to Russia, while the rest of her relatives, Valya’s children from the first marriage and his brothers, did not want to recognize the fact that the Khan Valiy took Russian citizenship Alexander I with great attention reacted to the widow of Khan Valia and ordered to build a house in which he was born Chokan Valikhanov in the Kirgiz Steppe “

The stories of grandmother Aigan, the songs of the well-known to the whole Sarah – the Arch of the tellers – fat, akyns – soon aroused interest in the life of their people in the boy and greatly influenced his further development. Bright memories of the grandmother – the bearer of the best folk traditions, customs – Ciocan preserved for life. In the autumn of 1847, Ciocana was sent to the Siberian Cadet Corps, the best educational institution in Siberia in those years, created in 1845-1846. in Omsk on the basis of the former school of the Siberian linear Cossack army. Here he studied history, literature, geography, physics, mathematics, geodesy and other disciplines, mastered French and English. The program of training in the Corps was rich and extensive, taught by interesting qualified specialists. A gifted boy, besides, the Kazakh, who makes great progress in studies and gives undoubted hopes for the future, attracted the attention of both the teachers of the Corps and many educated representatives of the Omsk intelligentsia, in particular K.K. Gutkovsky and S.Ya. Kapustin. In 1853, Chokan Valikhanov graduated from the Siberian Cadet Corps and shortly after graduation he was appointed adjutant of the Governor-General of Western Siberia and the Region of Frontier Kirghiz G.Kh. Gasfort. This appointment allowed the young officer not only to get deeper acquainted with the political and economic situation of the region, but also to realize his dream of exploring unknown countries and peoples. Entering the service, the young Chokan Valikhanov immediately encountered an officer and bureaucratic milieu, most of whom were reactionary officers and officials who made up the colonial apparatus of tsarism. The tsarist officials interfered in every way with the scientific endeavors of Chokan Valikhanov, tried to belittle the results of the scientific expedition in Kashgar, and plotted against him to prevent his election as the senior sultan of the Atbasar district order. Since the first days of service Valikhanov felt lonely in this environment and was looking for a way out of the emptiness and ignorance surrounding him, he was striving to do socially useful work. Chokan, eager to serve the Motherland, aspired to fruitful and creative activity. This opportunity presented itself very soon. This was facilitated by the historical situation in Kazakhstan in connection with the voluntary joining of the Kazakhs of the Senior Zhuz to Russia, the Tsarist administration badly needed educated people from the indigenous population who knew the living conditions, life and customs of the people. In this respect, Chokan Valikhanov was an irreplaceable person for her. Despite his youth (18 years), he was better than other officers knew the way of life, customs, peculiarities of spiritual and material culture of the Kazakh people, he knew a number of oriental languages. For these reasons, Chokan was involved in this important mission. From 1854-1857 years. Ciocan takes an active part in the settlement of the question of the peaceful annexation of the Kazakhs of the Senior Zhuz and the Kyrgyz tribes Bugu, Sarybagash and Saltu to Russia. He successfully combines official assignments with scientific studies: he collects various information on geography, genealogy, history, writes down customs, folk poetry of Kazakhs and Kirghiz.

Shokan Ualikhanov – Geographer, traveler

In 1855, Ciocan took on the trip of General Gasfort G.H. and made a great trip to Central Kazakhstan, Semirechiy and Tarbagatay. Its route ran from Omsk to Semipalatinsk, from there through Ayaguz and Kapal to Zailiyskiy Alatau, where at that time the Verny fortification was being laid. This journey marked the beginning of a deep scientific study of the history of the Kazakh people and their life. Chokan collected material on statistics, customary law and the ancient religion of Kazakhs. On the way back, Chokan accompanied G.Kh. Gasfort only to the Altyn-Emel Range, from there made a trip to the Dzungar Gate, traveled around Lake Alakul and Tarbagatai, then traveled to Central Kazakhstan and, following Karkaraly, Bayan-Aul and Kokchetav, returned to Omsk in the autumn. This trip left an indelible impression on the young Valikhanov. In early 1856, Chokan Valikhanov was awarded the next rank of lieutenant. Upon his return to Omsk, he begins to summarize the collected materials, on the basis of which he makes official notes on land use, clan and family relations and the ancient religion of the Kazakhs. A wide field for the deployment of scientific activity was opened to Valikhanov in 1856. He takes part in a major military-scientific expedition, organized under the leadership of Colonel M.M. Khomentovsky. The purpose of the expedition was to get acquainted with the Kirghiz people and topographic survey of the Issyk-Kul basin.
In the second half of May 1856, Chokan Valikhanov began his journey as part of the expedition of M.M. Khomentovsky. His route lay from Ala-Kul to the Central Tien-Shan and to the Issyk-Kul lake. In the beginning, he visited the Trans-Ili Alatau and through its passes passed to Kungei, and then to Terskey Alatau, visited the Issyk-Kul coast, and then along the valley of the Djirgalan River rose to the heights of the Central Tien Shan, from where he could observe the majestic panorama of Khan-Tengri. “My journey,” writes Chokan Valikhanov, “can be divided into two periods according to the property of the terrain traversed. The first period concludes my path along the Dzungaria, i.e. in Semiretsky, Zailiyskiy Krai and on the Issyk-Kul Lake … “. In total, Dzhungaria Valikhanov was five months and had time to examine this region along and from Ala-Kul to Tien-Shan. During this trip, Chokan collected ornithological and entomological collection, compiled a herbarium, studied the flora and fauna of Semirechye and Issyk-Kul, took part in the shooting of the lake, as a result of which the shape and contours of its shores were changed on the new map.
A strong impression on Chokan Valikhanov was made by unique monuments of ancient culture, which he met in Semirechye and Tien Shan. He was particularly interested in the remains of ancient urban culture on Lake Issyk-Kul, the remains of ancient irrigation systems, monuments of architecture and stone sculptures. Traveling along the Issyk-Kul and the Central Tien-Shan, Chokan visited Kyrgyz auls, was interested in the life and way of life of various tribes, he lived among them for a long time, he often talked with the experts of the Kyrgyz antiquity, listened to the songs and stories of Kyrgyz urchins (storytellers), constantly recorded folk legends , historical and genealogical legends, fairy tales and epic poems of Kirghiz. In 1856, the tsarist government decided to send a “special person” to Kuldzh, to negotiate with the Chinese authorities on the establishment of trade relations with China. This “special person” became Chokan Valikhanov. In early August, the Chokan goes to Kulju. On the way, he visited a number of border points in Western China. The Ciocan was supplied with the instruction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which stated: “… Acting in everything by conferring with the consul in Kuldja … Our main goal is to achieve a friendly solution to the matter with China and rather restore the interrupted trade relations …”. Thus, Valikhanov had to fulfill a complicated diplomatic mission. This important mission was performed by him perfectly. After a series of meetings with Chinese dignitaries in Gulja, the government managed to streamline trade relations with China and restore friendly ties between the two states.

The journey of Shokan Ualikhanov to Kashgariya.
In 1858 -1859 he made his famous trip to Kashgariya, which created him the glory of a brave traveler. Having studied geography, history, political structure, peculiarities of culture and life of this country almost unknown then in Europe. Valikhanov made a significant contribution to the scientific research of Eastern Turkestan. According to the circumstances that prevailed in Kashgariya, this country was closed to Europeans. The trip to Kashgariya was very dangerous. The entire East Turkestan at that time covered the uprisings of local peoples (Uighurs, Dungan, Kirghiz, etc.). The main initiators of Valikhanov’s trip to Kashgariya were the remarkable Russian scientists E. P. Kovalevsky and P.P. Semenov-Tien-Shan. This was joined by the ardent desire of Valikhanov himself to study Eastern Turkestan. “Valikhanov was the only one at the time under the Governor-General, an officer who, being sent in a national Kyrgyz suit in Kashgariya, could by his development and talent collect precious information for Russia about the current state of not only Kashgariya, but all Altyshar and explain the reasons for what was happening at that time trouble in China’s Turkestan “- wrote P.P. Semenov-Tien-Shan.
The archival funds hold a vast file containing the documentary materials of the Kashgar expedition of Valikhanov, but also the bright pages of his biography. It is known under the title “On sending to Kashgar the lieutenant Sultan Chokan Valikhanov.” On June 28, 1858, a caravan consisting of 43 people, 101 camels, 65 riding and pack horses and six marching yurts went out. Chokan shaved his head, changed into a Kazakh national costume and called Alibay. The caravan had an official permit from the government and was exempt from taxes and duties. Chokan Valikhanov and his companions moved to Kashgariya along the Aksai road, passing through the Syrt of the Central Tien Shan. It was an important caravan route, which for a long time served as an important way of communication between these ancient cultural areas. Chokan for the first time gives a geographical description and description of the total Syrt, characterizes its natural and climatic features, spelling, flora and fauna. In essence, Chokan with a caravan traveled along the crests of the Central Tien Shan, crossing it along the meridian from north to south. This journey lasted 12 days and ended on the southern slope. On September 28, 1858, the caravan crossed the border of the Chinese Empire and approached a small fortress bordered by an adobe wall with towers. After a survey and inspection by the border authorities, he was allowed into the city. Chokan spent about six months in Kashgariya (from October 1, 1858 to the middle of March 1859). During this time he managed to get acquainted with the city and study the country of Altyshar. Under the name of Altysharaar, the cities of Kashgariya, Aksu, Uch-Turfan, Yanysar, Yarkand and Khotan were then known, bordered by mountains: in the north of Tien Shan and in the south of Kuen-Lun.
In Kashgariy Valikhanov met merchants from different countries, with political figures, scientists and poets of Kashgariya, from whom he heard the most reliable information about the past and present of Altyshar. “Dating with merchants of different tribes,” writes Ciocan, “and from various countries delivered me many routes, ethnographic, statistical, trade information about neighboring countries.”
He also drew historical information from written sources, local official documents and books, supplemented by stories of officials and merchants. With the help of his scholarly friends, Valikhanov purchased a number of unique oriental manuscripts, compiled a numismatic collection, a herbarium, and a collection of rocks. He also collected various relics: ancient charters, samples of applied and folk-decorative art, artistic ceramics, etc.

At the end of February 1859, when the spring in Kashgariya was in full swing, it was time to think about returning, especially since the further stay of Ciocana became dangerous. Rumors spread that there is a Russian agent in Kashgariya. March 11, 1859 Chokan said goodbye to new friends, set off on the return journey. The path of Ciocana lay across the Turgart pass, south of Terekta. In the middle of March, the Terektinsky pass was impassable, there was deep snow, and Chokan and his companions decided to move through southern Kyrgyzstan and on the way to explore new places. From Turgart they headed to the wonderful high-altitude lake Chatyr-Kul, about which there were many historical legends. Prior to Ciocan, no researcher had stepped foot here. From there, through the valleys of the rivers Atbash and Uzgen, Chokan and his companions went to the Kokand fortification of the Jacket, located on the right bank of Naryn. Chokan Valikhanov was very interested in the vast valleys of Atbash, Arna and Naryn, which are oases. The traveler did not fail to determine that these valleys are of decisive importance in the economic life of the southern Kirghiz and are the center of this mountainous country. The observant scientist found here traces of the ebullient life of past times, preserved in the form of monumental monuments of architecture and a rich urban culture.
“In the Nagorny Syrt,” noted Valikhanov, “only wheat and barley grow on the low and warm valleys of Atbash, Arpa and Naryn. We must assume that in ancient times these places were inhabited by sedentary and semi-settled people, for, as the Kirghiz say, down the Atbash there are the ruins of a big city, and on Naryn we saw traces of ancient tillage. ” Then the caravan followed the northeastern direction, up Naryn, and on April 6, in the Djetym-Choku area, crossed a large caravan road leading through the Zaukinsky passage to the Issyk-Kul valley. Having successfully completed his journey for ten months and fourteen days, on April 12, 1859, Chokan arrived in the fortification of Vernoe (Alma-Ata), having “a rich supply of interesting information about Kashgariya.” After a rest of about a month and a half, he visited the city of Semipalatinsk, where he met with F. Dostoevsky and returned to Omsk, where he began to process the collected materials. In St. Petersburg, eagerly awaited as the arrival of Chokan Valikhanov, and a report on the results of his expedition. General I.F. Babkov wrote: “The Foreign Ministry was looking forward with impatience and lively curiosity to the details of Valikhanov’s trip to the unknown Kashgariya …” Until the autumn of 1859, Chokan was in Omsk, where he worked hard on the report. The results of the Kashgar expedition of Chokan Valikhanov were extremely important. They caused great interest of scientists. Chokan brought from Kashgariya a number of unique oriental manuscripts: “Tazkirian Sultan Sutuk Bugrakhan” (“History of Sutak Bugrakhan”), “Tazkryan Tugluk Timurkhan” (“History of Tugluk-Timur Khan”), “Tazkryan Khojaghyan” ( “History of Hodges”, etc.), as well as collections of rocks: jade samples, herbarium, numismatics and much more. Among the extensive materials collected by C. Valikhanov, his pencil sketches, which reproduce the types of inhabitants of East Turkestan and their occupations, occupy a significant place. The main result of the trip of Valikhanov to Kashgariya was his major work “On the state of Altyshara or the six eastern cities of the Chinese province of Nan-Lu (Minor Bukharia).” This was the first scientific work devoted to the history, geography and social structure of the peoples of Eastern Turkestan, written in the light of the achievements of modern science. This work of C. Valikhanov was a major contribution to the domestic science. It has not lost its meaning to this day. In this remarkable work the great erudition of the young scientist, his talent as an explorer, a sharp, inquisitive mind was manifested, the purely literary qualities of this work are produced most vividly: figurative syllable, entertaining, subtle humor. Contemporaries W. Valikhanov, scientists, writers and military specialists – highly appreciated the research of V. Valikhanov on Kashgariya, considering it a genuine geographical discovery. The report of Valikhanov was subsequently used in the design of trade factors in Kashgariya, as well as in the establishment of trade and cultural ties between Russia and Western China. The merits of the scientist-traveler were marked by his transfer to the rank of captain-captain, award of the order and monetary award. In St. Petersburg Valikhanov arrived at the end of 1859, Russian scientists met him as a brave traveler, a remarkable researcher, a deep connoisseur of the life of the peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. He had a huge store of knowledge, enriched with interesting observations made during travels on the mountains of the Tien Shan and East Turkestan.

Shokan Ualikhanov is a historian, archaeologist, ethnographer.
Chokan Valikhanov stayed in the Kuldzhinsky region for about three months, then, with the onset of deep autumn, returned to Omsk. In 1857, he again made a trip to the Alatau Kirghiz. Governor-General of Western Siberia G.Kh. Gasfort presented the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the following report: “The lieutenant-sultan Valikhanov, who is with me, has already been sent to the wilderness of the savage Kyrgyz to monitor the progress in the parts of Western China.” During his stay in the Tien Shan mountains, Chokan Valikhanov continued to gather information about the life and life of the Kirghiz people, and more deeply studied his history, ethnography, and folk poetry. As a result of his tireless work, he accumulated a vast historical and ethnographic material about the Kirghiz people. Valikhanov was the first to pay attention to the famous monument of the epic creativity of the Kyrgyz people “Manas”, made his first scientific record and made a partial translation into Russian. Valikhanov wrote: “Manas” is an encyclopedic collection of all Kyrgyz myths, fairy tales, legends, brought to one time and grouped around one person – the hero Manas. It’s something like a steppe Iliad. ” The scientific results of the first travels of the young Valikhanov in 1856-1857 are reflected in his remarkable travel essays Diary of a trip to Issyk-Kul, Notes on the Kirghiz, Western Province of the Chinese Empire and the city of Kulja. These early works of C. Valikhanov were written by him at the age of twenty and already in them Chokan showed himself to be an observant and erudite scientist with deep knowledge in the geography of the Tien Shan and Semirechye, spelling of the terrain, vegetation and fauna. Particularly interesting is his Kuldzhinsky diary of 1856, in which the details of the journey to Kuldzh, the life and way of life of the peoples inhabiting the boundary Dzungaria (the Chinese, solons, sibo, Kalmyks, etc.) are described in fascinating and colorful colors. The flourishing of the scientific and educational activities of C. Valikhanov refers to the end of the fifties – the beginning of the sixties of the 19th century

Valikhanov and outstanding Russian scientists and writers

That huge stock of observations that he accumulated during his travels, were the subject of scholarly talks with Valikhanov with outstanding scientists and writers. Being in Omsk, Valikhanov was closely acquainted with the exiled poet SF Durov. SF Durov was a revolutionary – a democrat, a fighter against the tsarist autocracy. April 23, 1849 he was arrested along with the main group of Petrashevites among 35 people. After an eight-month imprisonment in the Peter and Paul Fortress, a military court sentenced S.F. Durov to be shot, which was later replaced by a reference to hard labor. Upon termination of the term of hard labor on January 11, 1854, he was appointed rank-and-file officer for disciplinary military service in Petropavlovsk. Serving in the regional government of the Siberian Kirghiz, SF Durov drew attention to humane attitude to people, honesty, diligence and efficiency. Work in the regional government allowed SF Durov to visit the steppe, get acquainted with the life of working Kazakhs. In 1855-1856 he was allowed to live in the Kokchetavsky district “to improve health”. Friendly relations of Valikhanov and SF Durov were established immediately after the liberation of the last from Omsk fortress prison. Earlier, Valikhanov heard about him through KK Gutkovsky, was interested in his fate, warmly sympathized with him and sought an opportunity to meet him personally. Since the spring of 1855, the place of constant meetings of friends was the Kapustins’ house, as well as the apartment of Valikhanov himself. During the meetings sincere conversations were held, questions of the socio-political life of the country were discussed, which concerned all progressive people of that time. Chokan was closely acquainted with the Russian writer FM Dostoyevsky, who was serving hard labor with SF. Durov in the Omsk fortress. About D. Dostoevsky C. Valikhanov heard a lot in the family Kapustins and Gutkovsky. According to A.E. Wrangel, the first acquaintance of Chokan with Dostoevsky occurred in 1854 in Omsk, in the Ivanovs’ house, which often had a writer. This meeting revealed the commonality of their views and aspirations, and they became close friends. Being in the Omsk convict prison, which he called the “Dead House”, and after leaving it, Dostoevsky did not abandon his forward views that he had in the circle of Petrashevists. In conversations with Ciocan and in correspondence with him, he showed himself as a great progressive thinker and exposer of the vices of a rotten landlord system in Russia. Ciocanu was only 19 years old when he became one of the close friends of the great writer. Friendly dialogue between Chokan and Dostoevsky, which began with an acquaintance in the Ivanovs’ house, was continued by meetings in Semipalatinsk and Petersburg and was supported by a six-year correspondence (1856-1862). In the spring of 1854, the tsarist authorities deemed it necessary to remove F.M. Dostoevsky from the regional center and sent to the wilderness. He was transferred to Semipalatinsk for indefinite military service. In 1856-1858, traveling on trips through the steppe, Valikhanov invariably stopped by Dostoevsky, talked with him for a long time on political and philosophical topics. Ciocan’s meeting with F.M. Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk is one of the brightest pages of his biography. This meeting is depicted in a photograph that has survived to this day. F.M. Dostoevsky knew the life of the Kazakh aul. Taking advantage of the proximity to such people as Popov, Wrangel, Khomentovsky, who then held a prominent position, F.M. Dostoevsky could visit the Kazakh auls with Ch. Valikhanov, visit Arkata, in the Chingiz and Tarbagatai mountains for archaeological research. The life of the Kazakh people was a new interesting topic of conversation between Ch. Valikhanov and F.M. Dostoevsky. After the meetings in Semipalatinsk, the friends parted for a long time, correspondence began between them, representing a great social and historical interest and being an example of close ideological communication of remarkable representatives of the two fraternal peoples. In the letters of Valikhanov, his public views, his love of the Russian people and Russian culture were reflected. F.M. Dostoevsky also followed the scientific progress of Valikhanov, was keenly interested in his future destiny. The friendly connection between Valikhanov and FM Dostoyevsky continued for many years. Dostoevsky FM remembered his friend from Kazakhstan for life. All the items he received from Chokan Valikhanov became the most expensive souvenirs for him. The years of Valikhanov’s stay in St. Petersburg represent one of the brightest pages of his biography. Being surrounded by the advanced Russian intelligentsia, closely following the successes of the young scientist-traveler, Valikhanov in these years with special power could show his extraordinary talent and knowledge.

The activity of C. Valikhanov in St. Petersburg was very ebullient and versatile. He worked in several institutions: the Military-Scientific Committee of the General Staff, the Asian Department, the Geographical Society and at the same time listened to lectures at the university. On the instructions of the Military Scientific Committee, he compiled maps of Central Asia and Eastern Turkestan. In St. Petersburg, Ciocan constantly communicated with many outstanding Russian scientists, established friendly relations with them. These are: Semenov-Tyan-Shansky PP, Potanin GN, Beketov AN, Kovalevsky EP and others. A remarkable page of the St. Petersburg period of life of Valikhanov is his friendly communication with Russian writers. While in Petersburg he often visited Dostoevsky, got acquainted with his family, and also with the poets A.N. Maikov, Ya.P. Polonsky, critic of Strakhov and others. Talking daily with prominent Russian writers and scholars, Chokan awakened the interest of many of them to Central Asia and Kazakhstan, and helped to strengthen the friendly disposition toward the peoples of these suburbs. He gave some poets topics from Eastern life. Under the influence of conversations with C. Valikhanov, the poet A.N. Maikov wrote poems “In the steppes”, “Emshan”. His materials and consultations were used by many authors, in particular Golubev AF. and Romanovsky DI, officers of the General Staff who wrote about Issyk-Kul, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The materials of C. Valikhanov were used by Semenov-Tian-Shansky, P.P. Kovalevsky EP, Tatarinov AA and many others. Chokan loved to be witty, evil to ridicule the vices that he found in his environment. The wit, Valikhanov’s brilliant polemical gift was enthralled by his friends-scientists and writers who knew him closely.

Memory of Shokan Ualikhanov

The memory of Chokan Valikhanovo was correctly kept by his friends and comrades: GN Potanin, NM Yadrintsev, G.A. Kolpakovsky, I.I. Ibragimov, N.F. Usov and many others. In commemoration of the scientific merits of Chokan Valikhanov, they were commissioned by General KP. Kaufman and with the assistance of architect P. Zenkov established in the seventies of the XIX century on the mausoleum of Valikhanov a marble slab with an inscription in Kazakh and Russian. The inscription on the stove read: “Here lies the ashes of the captain-captain Chokan Chingisovich Valikhanov, who died in 1865. At the request of the Governor-General Kaufman of Turkestan the 1st, in view of scholars of Valikhanov’s merits, this monument was placed by Lieutenant-General Kolpakovsky in 1881”. Since then, more than a hundred years have passed and that monument to Valikhanov has long been destroyed by time. But grateful offspring did not forget the remarkable son of the Kazakh people. In 1958, a high obelisk was placed on the grave of Chokan Valikhanov. On the eve of the 150th anniversary of his birth, near the collective farm. Ciocana built a memorial complex (museum, monument, obelisk). Here constantly come the figures of science, literature and art. The name of Ch.Ch. Valikhanova NAS of the Republic of Kazakhstan, awarded for outstanding achievements in the field of social and geographical sciences, as well as the State Prize in the field of fine arts and architecture (1966). Honor Valikhanov named the peak on the northern slope of the Trans-Ili Alatau. Collected works were published in 1961-1972, 1984-1985; films were created (“His time will come”, “Chokan Valikhanov”). The writers S. Markov and S. Mukanov dedicated Valikhanov’s novels “Going to the top”, “The flashed meteor”. I. Strelkova wrote a documentary book “Chokan Valikhanov” (The Life of Remarkable People series). At the birthplace of Ch. Valikhanov in the city of Kokshetau, on the basis of three higher educational institutions, the pedagogical, agricultural and polytechnic, in July 1996, a university was opened, which bears the name of our fellow countryman, the outstanding scientist and encyclopedist C. Valikhanov, on the square in front of the university there is a bust of Ciocanu Valikhanov. In 1971, a monument was built to Valikhanov, the author of the monument was our fellow countryman, sculptor Tolegen Dosmagambetov, architect K. Abdualiyev.

Scientific works of Shokan Ualikhanov

63.3 (5kaz) Valikhanov Ch.Ch. Selected works .- Moscow: Nauka, 1986 At 15 414 s .: ill. 63.3 (5-point) 5 Valikhanov Ch.Ch. Collected Works: In 5 T.-Alma-Ata: Kazakh.cov.enciklopediya, In 15 1984-T.1.-1984.-431s .; yl; T.2.-1985.-416s; yl; T.3.-1985.-415s; yl; T.4.-1985.-461s .; T.5.-1985.-526s .; yl. 63.3 (5kaz) Valikhanov Ch.Ch. Death of Kukotai-khan .- Semey, 2001.-251s. B-15 87.3 (5kaz) Valikhanov Ch. In the memoirs of contemporaries.-Alma-Ata, 1964.-222 with B 15

Abzhanova L. The lantern of the Kazakh steppe: / To the 170th birthday of Ch. Valikhanov / / Prostor.-2005.-2 December.

Abuev K. The unknown world of Chokan: / Towards the 170th anniversary of Chokan Valikhanov / / Kazakhstanskaya pravda.-2005.-3 December.

Zhambakina F. Stepnoy Prometheus: / To the 170th birthday of Charles Valikhanov / / Express K.- 2005.- December 10.

Zhernakova B. Life worthy of eternity: / To the 170th birthday of Ch. Valikhanov / / Course.-2005.-1 December.-P.2.

Petrovsky A. The light of a distant star: / To the 170th anniversary of the Ch. Valikhanov / / Kazakhstanskaya pravda.-2005.-7 July.-P.8.

On the blade of the knife: / On the reconnaissance trip of C. Valikhanov to Kashgariya / // Modern metropolitan education.-2006.-N3-4.-С.99.

Samigulin I. On the monument over the tomb of Ch.V. Valikhanov: / Historical and cultural heritage / / History of Kazakhstan: teaching at school.-2005.-N 12.-P.33-38.

Introduction